Barbarossa lost Algiers in 1524 but regained it with the Capture of Algiers (1529), and then formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire. mehr


This atmosphere contrasts with the later Ottoman mosques (see for example the works of Suleiman the Magnificent's chief architect Mimar Sinan.) The mosques that were built after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, and influenced by the design of the 6th century Byzantine basilica of Hagia Sophia, had increasingly elevated and large central domes, which create a vertical emphasis that is intended to be more overwhelming; in order to convey the divine power of Allah, the majesty of the Ottoman Sultan, and the governmental authority of the Ottoman State. mehr

History of Islam

In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I, defeating the ruling Turcoman federation Aq Qoyunlu (also called the "White Sheep Turkomans") in 1501. The Ottoman sultan Selim I sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514. Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories in 1517. Suleiman I (also known as "Suleiman the Magnificent"), Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus to the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had fallen under Safavid control. mehr


The Ottoman Empire was an imperial state that lasted from 1299 to 1923. During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a powerful multinational, multilingual empire controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. mehr

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II is recognized as the first Sultan to codify criminal and constitutional law, long before Suleiman the Magnificent; he thus established the classical image of the autocratic Ottoman sultan. mehr

Mehmed III

He was born during the reign of his great-grandfather, Suleiman the Magnificent, in 1566. He was the son of Prince Murad (the future Murad III), himself the son of Crown Prince Selim (the future Selim II), who was the son of Sultan Suleiman and Hürrem Sultan. mehr

Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent is known to have had good relations with Akbar the Great. mehr

Selim II

"Selim II" (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى "Selīm-i <u>s</u>ānī", Turkish:"II.Selim"; 28 May 1524 – 12 December/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" in west and as "Sarı Selim" (Selim the Blond) in east, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574. He was a son of Suleiman the Magnificent and Haseki Hürrem Sultan. mehr

Selim II

He was born in Constantinople a son of Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal Rusyn wife, Hürrem Sultan. mehr


The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr

Pope Leo X

In 1519 the Kingdom of Hungary concluded a three years' truce with Selim I, but the succeeding sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, renewed the war in June 1521 and on 28 August captured the citadel of Belgrade. mehr

Battle of Mohács

In the battle, forces of the Kingdom of Hungary led by Louis II were defeated by forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr

Battle of Mohács

The objective for Francis I was clearly to find an ally against the powerful Habsburg Emperor Charles V, in the person of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr

Battle of Mohács

Three years later, an Ottoman army set out from Istanbul on 16 April 1526, led by Suleiman the Magnificent personally. mehr

History of Austria

Matters came to a close when his wife Anne's brother the young king Louis was killed fighting the Turks under Suleiman the Magnificent at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the title passing to Ferdinand. mehr

History of Malta

On 18 May 1565, Suleiman the Magnificent laid siege to Malta. mehr

Louis II of Hungary

In 1521 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was well aware of Hungary's weakness. mehr

Louis II of Hungary

On 29 August 1526, Louis led his forces against Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire in the disastrous Battle of Mohács. mehr

Francis I of France

When this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. mehr

Philip II of Spain

In the early part of his reign Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr

Philip II of Spain

As a response, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an Ottoman fleet of 120 ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on 9 May 1560. The battle lasted until 14 May 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis (who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle) had an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. mehr


During the reign of Sultan Bayezid II, his son Prince Selim (later Sultan Selim I) was the sancakbeyi of Trabzon, and Selim I's son Suleiman the Magnificent was born in Trabzon on November 6, 1494. The Ottoman government often appointed local Chepni and Laz beys as the regional beylerbeyi. mehr

Dome of the Rock

During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) the exterior of the Dome of the Rock was covered with tiles. mehr

Dome of the Rock

Surah Ya Sin is inscribed across the top of the tile work and was commissioned in the 16th century by Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr

Dome of the Rock

The work included replacement of large numbers of tiles dating back to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, which had become dislodged by heavy rain. mehr

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle and Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire. mehr

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles's rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the central part of the Hungarian Kingdom in 1526 after defeating the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohács. mehr

Western Wall

In 1517, the Turkish Ottoman Empire under Selim I conquered Jerusalem from the Mamluks who had held it since 1250. The Ottomans had a benevolent attitude towards the Jews, having welcomed thousands of Jewish refugees who had recently been expelled from Spain by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1492. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was so taken with Jerusalem and its plight that he ordered a magnificent fortress-wall built around the entire city, today's Old City wall. mehr

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

After six months of siege and fierce combat against the fleet and army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the Knights were forced to surrender in 1523 and left Rhodes with military honours. mehr

Kara Mustafa Pasha

By mid-July, his 100,000-man army had besieged Vienna (guarded by 10,000 Habsburg soldiers), following in the footsteps of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1529. By September, he had taken a portion of the walls and appeared to be on his way to victory. mehr


Some of these European wives exerted great influence upon the empire as "Valide Sultan" ("Mother-Sultan"), some famous examples including Roxelana, a Ukrainian harem slave who later became Suleiman the Magnificent's favourite wife, and Nakşidil Sultan, wife of Abdul Hamid I, who according to legend may have been Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, cousin of French Empress Josephine. mehr


Another notable example was Roxelana, the favourite wife of Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr

John III of Portugal

In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the Far East continued and the Portuguese reached China and Japan; however, these accomplishments were offset by pressure from a strengthening Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent, especially in India, where attacks became more frequent. mehr

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country, and then applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state. mehr


In addition to large Imperial mosques, he produced hundreds of other monuments, including medium-sized mosques such as the Mihrimah, Sokollu, and Rüstem Pasha Mosque and the tomb of Suleiman the Magnificent. mehr


Very elaborate decorated versions were created for important documents that were also works of art in the tradition of Ottoman illumination, such as the example of Suleiman the Magnificent in the gallery below. mehr

Şehzade Mustafa

"Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi" () (1515, Manisa – October 6, 1553, Konya), was the prince of Manisa from 1533 to 1541 and the prince of Amasya from 1541 to 1553. He was Suleiman the Magnificent's first-born son by Mahidevran Sultan. mehr

Sublime Porte

When Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent sealed an alliance with King Francis I of France in 1536, the French diplomats walked through the monumental gate or "Bab-ı Ali" in order to reach the Vizierate of Constantinople, seat of the Sultan's government. mehr


Kavala was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 to 1912. In the middle of the 16th century, Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier of Suleiman the Magnificent, contributed to the prosperity and growth of Kavala by the construction of an aqueduct. mehr

Hans Eworth

Image:Hans Eworth Osmanischer Wurdentrager zu Pferd.jpg|Suleiman the Magnificent on horseback. mehr


These massive fortifications proved sufficient to repel invasions by the Sultan of Egypt in 1444 and Mehmed II in 1480. Finally, however, the citadel at Rhodes fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1522, and the other islands were overrun within the year. mehr

Old City (Jerusalem)

The current walls, built by Suleiman the Magnificent, have a total of eleven gates, but only seven are open. mehr

Spanish Empire

In 1543, the king of France Francis I announced his unprecedented alliance with the Islamic sultan of the Ottoman, Suleiman the Magnificent, by occupying the Spanish-controlled city of Nice in concert with Ottoman forces. mehr

Spanish Empire

Suleiman the Magnificent's death the following year and his succession by his less capable son Selim the Sot emboldened Philip, and he resolved to carry the war to the sultan himself. mehr


In 1522, Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the Crusader knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle of Saint Peter and Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire. mehr

Serbian Orthodox Church

The Serbian Patriarchate was restored in 1557 by the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, thanks to the mediation of the statesman Sokollu Mehmet Pasha. mehr


The larger one is the Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, sometimes called the İskele (Dock) Mosque, built by a daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent; the smaller one is the Şemsi Pasha Mosque, built by a vizier of Suleiman's. mehr

History of Jerusalem

In 1517, Jerusalem was taken over by the Ottoman Empire and enjoyed a period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent, including the construction of magnificent walls of what is now known as the Old City of Jerusalem (however, some of the wall foundations are remains of genuine antique walls). The city remained open to all religions, although the empire's faulty management after Suleiman the Magnificent meant economical stagnation. mehr


Examples include the Fountain of Qasim Pasha (1527), Temple Mount, Jerusalem, an ablution and drinking fountain built during the Ottoman reign of Suleiman the Magnificent; the Fountain of Ahmed III (1728) at the Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, another Fountain of Ahmed III in Üsküdar (1729) and Tophane Fountain (1732). mehr

Siege of Vienna

The "Siege of Vienna" in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. mehr
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