Botany

Plants and various other groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes collectively known as "algae" have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed endosymbiotic relationships with ancient plant and algal ancestors. Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll "a". Chlorophyll "a" (as well as its plant and green algal-specific cousin chlorophyll "b")}} absorbs light in the blue-violet and orange/red parts of the spectrum while reflecting and transmitting the green light that we see as the characteristic colour of these organisms. The energy in the red and blue light that these pigments absorb is used by chloroplasts to make energy-rich carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water by oxygenic photosynthesis, a process that generates molecular oxygen (O2) as a by-product. mehr

Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that unifies carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. The reactions of the cycle are carried out by 8 enzymes that completely oxidize acetate, in the form of acetyl-CoA, into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, a two-carbon organic product acetate in the form of acetyl-CoA is produced which enters the citric acid cycle. The reactions of the cycle also convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into three equivalents of reduced NAD+ (NADH), one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into one equivalent of FADH2, and one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The NADH and FADH2 generated by the citric acid cycle are in turn used by the oxidative phosphorylation pathway to generate energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP). mehr

Glycolysis

The second half of glycolysis is known as the pay-off phase, characterised by a net gain of the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADH. Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose molecule. This yields 2 NADH molecules and 4 ATP molecules, leading to a net gain of 2 NADH molecules and 2 ATP molecules from the glycolytic pathway per glucose. mehr

Milk

FAO reports) across 17 developed countries. The survey found that the average herd size in these developed countries increased from 74 to 99 cows per herd between 2001 to 2007. A dairy farm had an average of 19 cows per herd in Norway, and 337 in New Zealand. Annual milk production in the same period increased from per cow in these developed countries. The lowest average production was in New Zealand at per cow. The milk yield per cow depended on production systems, nutrition of the cows, and only to a minor extent different genetic potential of the animals. What the cow ate made the most impact on the production obtained. New Zealand cows with the lowest yield per year grazed all year, in contrast to Israel with the highest yield where the cows ate in barns with an energy-rich mixed diet. mehr

Yorkshire pudding

In poorer households, the pudding was often served as the only course. Using dripping and blood, a simple, energy-rich meal was made with flour, eggs and milk. This was traditionally eaten with a gravy or sauce, to moisten the pudding. mehr

Adenine

"Adenine" ("A", "Ade") is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. mehr

Biomass (ecology)

The bottom of the pyramid represents the primary producers (autotrophs). The primary producers take energy from the environment in the form of sunlight or inorganic chemicals and use it to create energy-rich molecules such as carbohydrates. This mechanism is called primary production. The pyramid then proceeds through the various trophic levels to the apex predators at the top. mehr

Rock Springs, Wyoming

Rock Springs is located in an energy-rich region with many oil and natural gas wells. mehr

Carbohydrate catabolism

"Carbohydrate catabolism" is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP. The production of ATP is achieved through the oxidation of glucose molecules. In oxidation, the electrons are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD. NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy potential to drive the production of ATP in the electron transport chain. ATP production occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. There are two methods of producing ATP: aerobic and anaerobic. mehr

Polyphosphate

High-polymeric inorganic polyphosphates were found in living organisms by L. Liberman in 1890. These compounds are linear polymers containing a few to several hundred residues of orthophosphate linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. mehr

Beekeeping

Within the central brood nest, a single frame of comb typically has a central disk of eggs, larvae and sealed brood cells that may extend almost to the edges of the frame. Immediately above the brood patch an arch of pollen-filled cells extends from side to side, and above that again a broader arch of honey-filled cells extends to the frame tops. The pollen is protein-rich food for developing larvae, while honey is also food but largely energy rich rather than protein rich. The nurse bees that care for the developing brood secrete a special food called 'royal jelly' after feeding themselves on honey and pollen. The amount of royal jelly fed to a larva determines whether it develops into a worker bee or a queen. mehr

Ceratonia siliqua

Carob pod meal is used as an energy-rich feed for livestock, particularly for ruminants, though its high tannin content may limit its use. Carob pods were mainly used as animal fodder in the Maltese Islands, apart from times of famine or war when they formed part of the diet of many Maltese. In the Iberian Peninsula, carob pods were used to feed donkeys. mehr

The Life of Mammals

Broadcast 18 December 2002, this programme is devoted to carnivorous mammals. Attenborough starts in the English countryside, where, besides humans farming sheep, a stoat chases and catches a rabbit. Meat is one of the most energy-rich foods there is, and there are several groups that eat it exclusively. Among the most prolific to do so are cats and dogs. Canine adaptations are varied, and are illustrated by the differences between fennecs and Arctic foxes. Meanwhile, the biggest concentration of meat occurs on the plains of Africa, and African hunting dogs are shown capturing a wildebeest with efficient teamwork. However, the largest wild canid is the wolf, and Attenborough successfully communicates with a pack of them in North America before they embark on an exhausting hunt for elk. Back in Africa, infrared cameras are used to examine the nocturnal activities of lions, which bring down a zebra. During the day, a solitary cheetah — the fastest animal on four legs — swiftly overtakes an impala and despatches it. One of the most adaptable of the big cats is the leopard, and infrared technology is again used to spot one of them as it searches an Indian village for domestic goats. As it does so, it comes dangerously close to the hut where Attenborough sits with his observation equipment. Finally, Attenborough visits the frozen North to witness the animal kingdom's most powerful predator, the Siberian tiger, albeit one that is held in captivity. mehr

Ziziphus

The fruit is energy-rich because of the large amount of sugar it contains. It is cultivated and eaten fresh, dry, and in jam. They also get added as a base in meals and in the manufacture of candy. mehr

Trichoplax

Sexual reproduction is thought to be triggered by excessive population density. As a result, the animals absorb liquid, begin to swell, and separate from the substrate so that they float freely in the water. In the protected interior space, the ventral cells form an ovum surrounded by a special envelope, the fertilisation membrane; the ovum is supplied with nutrients by the surrounding syncytium, allowing energy-rich yolk to accumulate in its interior. Once maturation of the ovum is complete, the rest of the animal degenerates, liberating the ovum itself. Small unciliated cells that form at the same time are interpreted to be spermatozoa. It has not yet been possible to observe fertilisation itself; the existence of the fertilisation membrane is currently taken to be evidence, however, that it has taken place. mehr

Cybertron

As part of the rebuilding program, the Autobot-Decepticon alliance entered into a partnership with Earth's governments to mine Earth and the Sol system for the energy-rich mineral known as Energon. Over the next ten years, Cybertron was steadily restored as "Cybertron Cities" were built in strategic positions on Earth, its moon and Mars to gather Energon and keep the planet rich and healthy. mehr

List of Transformers TV series

Picking up twenty years after the end of "Armada", "Energon" focuses on the quest for the titular energy-rich mineral, the Transformers' power source. The Autobots and Decepticons, allied since the conclusion of "Armada", have entered into an alliance with humankind in order to mine for energon on Earth, and now operate out of massive "Cybertron Cities" in strategic locations around the world. But, out in the void of space, the damaged, deactivated body of Unicron now serves the staging base of the deranged alien being Alpha Q, who sends armies of robotic Terrorcons to steal Energon for his own purposes. But those purposes are not as sinister as they seem, and soon pale in comparison to the evil of the resurrected Megatron! mehr

Arcee

While Omnicons were formerly Autobots and Decepticons, these two sides set aside their differences and left Cybertron with Team Rodimus. The Omnicons eventually began working together to mine Energon, the energy-rich mineral needed to power Transformers and their technology. Invaluable to the Transformers because of their unique ability to handle, shape and process raw energon, which is damaging to normal Transformers, the Omnicons created the Cybertron cities as only they can. There are three distinct body types shared among the Omnicon ranks, but unlike the Terrorcons, each Omnicon possesses an individual mind of his own. mehr

Herald of Galactus

When Galactus threatened to destroy Zenn-La, Norrin Radd offered to become the world-devourer’s servant if Galactus would spare his homeworld. Galactus agreed and, perhaps humbled by his experiences with the Fallen One, Galactus imbued Radd with a small fraction of his own power cosmic, transforming him into the herald known as the Silver Surfer. As Galactus’ new herald, the Surfer was dedicated to finding uninhabited but energy-rich worlds for Galactus to consume. mehr

Herald of Galactus

Galactus, already intent on using Sue Storm’s powers to thwart the alien federation, arrived on Earth soon after Johnny’s transformation. Discovering the switch, Galactus kidnapped Johnny and immediately infused him with the power cosmic. Although Johnny was initially overwhelmed by his new powers, he began seeking an uninhabited world for Galactus to consume while secretly rallying other worlds against Galactus. His delaying tactics allowed the Fantastic Four and Quasar to eventually catch up to Johnny. Using his new powers, Johnny analyzed Galactus and instructed Reed and Quasar in the construction of a device that removed Galactus’ cosmic energy. Galactus temporarily reverted to his original form – that of the powerless Galen – and was brought to Earth. There, the Fantastic Four convinced Galen to exile himself into an energy-rich dimension. mehr

Chemiosmosis

The theory suggests essentially that most ATP synthesis in respiring cells comes from the electrochemical gradient across the inner membranes of mitochondria by using the energy of NADH and FADH2 formed from the breaking down of energy-rich molecules such as glucose. mehr

Transduction (biophysics)

In photosynthesis, when the electrons of the "chlorophyll pair" receive the photon energy from the "collecting" associated pigments, the photonic energy is "destined" to link one molecule of phosphate to one of NAD. The resulting NADP in turn will use the stored energy in the generation of ATP, which is the end point of the light-induced photosynthetic process. is quite wrong: NADP is reduced (electrons are added) to NADPH in the light reactions of linear electron transport. No ATP involved directly. Phosphate is "linked" to ADP, forming ATP, but this does not involve NADP(H), it involves the proton gradient (and ATP synthase) generated by photosynthetic electron transport processes. This means that the photon's energy ends up its circuit by being "transduced" to an electron that takes part in the formation of a molecular link of energy-rich phosphate. mehr

Chemical change

Biochemistry deals with the chemistry of the growth and activity of living organisms. It is a chemistry where most reactions are controlled by complex proteins called enzymes and are moderated and limited by hormones. The chemistry is always highly complex and is still not fully understood. Decomposition of organic material is also within the scope of biochemistry although in this case it is the growth and activity of fungi, bacteria and other micro-organisms that is involved. Typical types of change include all the process involved in photosynthesis, a process in which carbon dioxide and water are changed into sugars and oxygen by plants, digestion in which energy rich materials are used by organisms to grow and move, Krebs cycle which liberates energy from stored reserves, protein synthesis which enable organisms to grow using processes controlled by RNA etc. mehr

Electricity sector in India

Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuels such as coal, natural gas, petroleum products, agricultural waste, domestic trash/waste, etc. into electricity. Other sources of fuel include landfill gas and biogases. In some plants, renewal fuels such as biogas are co-fired with coal. mehr

Wedge-tailed shearwater

Both sexes undertake a prelaying exodus in order to build up energy reserves, this usually lasts around 28 days. A single egg is laid, if that egg is lost then the pair will not attempt another that season. After laying, the male usually undertakes the first incubation stint. Both sexes incubate the egg, in stints that can last up to 13 days. Incubation takes around 50 days. After hatching, the chick is brooded for up to six days, until it is able to thermoregulate, after which it is left alone in the nest while both parents hunt for food. It is initially fed with stomach oil, an energy rich waxy oil of digested prey created in the parent’s gut; later it is fed both solids and stomach oil. Like many procellariids, wedge-tailed shearwater parents alternate long and short trips to provide food, with the parents alternating between short foraging trips (1–4 days) and long trips (about 8 days), the two parents coordinating their feeding effort. Chicks increase in size to 560 g (larger than the adults) then drop to around 430 g before fledging. Fledging occurs after 103–115 days, after which the chick is independent of the adult. mehr

Mini-Con

Over the ensuing ten years, Mini-Cons became much less of a desired commodity as the Autobots and Decepticons worked together with humankind to establish cities on Earth and in the solar system to mine of the energy-rich mineral, Energon. The Street Action team received upgrades to their bodies, but rarely saw any kind of combat, content to partner around with Kicker. The Energon Saber Mini-Cons - apparently "not" upgraded Star Saber Mini-Cons - were stationed at Mars City, and survived the devastation there, joining the fight against Alpha Q and his Terrorcons, wielded as a weapon by Ironhide and Kicker, and on occasion by Optimus. mehr

Cyclonus

Some time later, outnumbered and fleeing from the Aerialbots, Cyclonus and Scourge took refuge inside a vortex, which transported them to the pacifistic, energy-rich planet of Paradron, which had been settled by Cybertronian refugees. Naturally, the duo immediately overthrew the planet and summoned Galvatron and the other Decepticons there; the plan was ultimately foiled by the Autobots, but at the cost of Paradron itself, which was destroyed. mehr

Cyclonus

"Armada" concluded with the seeming death of Megatron, and in the ten-year interim between the events of the series and its 2004 sequel, "Transformers: Energon," Cyclonus and the other Decepticons entered into an alliance with the Autobots and humans in a joint program to mine for the energy-rich mineral, energon, on Earth and in the Sol system. Sporting a new black, white and grey camouflage color scheme, Cyclonus was stationed on Lunar City on the Earth’s moon. When the city was attacked by Alpha Q’s Terrorcons, Cyclonus was believed destroyed, but was soon able to make his way back to Earth for a happy reunion with Demolishor. The pair were torn apart again, however, by the appearance of Scorponok, wielding a sword forged from Megatron’s spark; this was enough to convince Cyclonus of his leader’s continued existence, and he immediately turned on the Autobots and sided with Scorponok and Tidal Wave to acquire energon for Megatron’s revival. mehr

Myrica

The wax coating on the fruit is indigestible for most birds, but a few species have adapted to be able to eat it, notably the Yellow-rumped Warbler in North America. As the wax is very energy-rich, this enables the Yellow-rumped Warbler to winter further north in cooler climates than any other American warbler if bayberries are present. The seeds are then dispersed in the birds' droppings. "Myrica" species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including brown-tail, emperor moth, and winter moth as well as the bucculatricid leaf-miners "Bucculatrix cidarella", "B. myricae" (feeds exclusively on "M. gale") and "B. paroptila" and the "Coleophora" case-bearers "C. comptoniella", "C. pruniella", and "C. viminetella". mehr

Shielding gas

"Helium" is lighter than air; larger flow rates are required. It is an inert gas, not reacting with the molten metals. Its thermal conductivity is high. It is not easy to ionize, requiring higher voltage to start the arc. Due to higher ionization potential it produces hotter arc at higher voltage, provides wide deep bead; this is an advantage for aluminium, magnesium, and copper alloys. Other gases are often added. Blends of helium with addition of 5–10% of argon and 2–5% of carbon dioxide ("tri-mix") can be used for welding of stainless steel. Used also for aluminium and other non-ferrous metals, especially for thicker welds. In comparison with argon, helium provides more energy-rich but less stable arc. Helium and carbon dioxide were the first shielding gases used, since the beginning of World War 2. Helium is used as a shield gas in laser welding for carbon dioxide lasers. Pure helium is not used for steel, as it then provides erratic arc and encourages spatter. mehr

Acyl carrier protein

4'-Phosphopantetheine is an essential prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins involved in pathways of primary and secondary metabolism including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty acid synthases, ACPs of polyketide synthases, and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Phosphopantetheine fulfills two demands in these biosynthetic pathways. First, the intermediates remain covalently linked to the synthases (or synthetases) in an energy-rich linkage. Second, the flexibility and length of the phosphopantetheine chain (approximately 2 nm) allows the covalently tethered intermediates to have access to spatially distinct enzyme-active sites. This increases the effective molarity of the intermediate and allows an assembly line-like process. mehr

Omnicon

While Omnicons were formerly Autobots and Decepticons, these two sides set aside their differences and left Cybertron with Team Rodimus. The Omnicons eventually began working together to mine Energon, the energy-rich mineral needed to power Transformers and their technology. Invaluable to the Transformers because of their unique ability to handle, shape and process raw energon, which is damaging to normal Transformers, the Omnicons created the Cybertron cities as only they can. There are three distinct body types shared among the Omnicon ranks, but unlike the Terrorcons, each Omnicon possesses an individual mind of his own. mehr

Redfield ratio

In the ocean a large portion of the biomass is found to be nitrogen-rich plankton. Many of these plankton are consumed by other plankton biomass which have similar chemical compositions. This results in a similar nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, on average, for all the plankton throughout the world’s ocean, empirically found to be averaging approximately 16:1. When these organisms sink into the ocean interior, their energy-rich bodies are consumed by bacteria that, in aerobic conditions, oxidize the organic matter to form dissolved inorganic nutrients, mainly carbon dioxide, nitrate, and phosphate. mehr

Sunstorm (Transformers)

Forced into an alliance with the Earth-based Autobots to save his own skin, Starscream reactivated the frozen Jetfire, who deduced Sunstorm's clone nature and developed a power siphon to drain off his energies. In the ensuing battle to attach the siphon to Sunstorm, Starscream betrayed the Autobots left to guard him and escaped to further his own ends, only to be pursued by the weakened Sunstorm, and for them both to be set upon by Omega Supreme. In order to escape, Starscream blasted the siphon off of Sunstorm, who overcame Omega and took Starscream to the site of the seal. Professing that only Starscream could open it, which he did, Sunstorm unveiled a mysterious subterranean chamber, overflowing with an energy-rich liquid that could give Starscream similar, but directly-opposite, powers to Sunstorm's. Unwilling to risk his life in the ooze, Starscream turned on Sunstorm, blasted him and sending him tumbling into the liquid, only for him to emerge, moments later, his powers flaring uncontrollably as the opposing natures of the two energies began to tear him apart from within. Descending even further into his madness, Sunstorm was engaged by Jetfire, who dragged him out of Earth's atmosphere, where Sunstorm exploded. mehr

Lithotroph

Lithotrophic microbial consortia are responsible for the phenomenon known as acid mine drainage, whereby energy-rich pyrites and other reduced sulfur compounds present in mine tailing heaps and in exposed rock faces is metabolized to form sulfates, thereby forming potentially toxic sulfuric acid. Acid mine drainage drastically alters the acidity and chemistry of groundwater and streams, and may endanger plant and animal populations. Activities similar to acid mine drainage, but on a much lower scale, are also found in natural conditions such as the rocky beds of glaciers, in soil and talus, on stone monuments and buildings and in the deep subsurface. mehr

Sandstorm (Transformers)

Sandstorm was an Autobot among those Autobots who peacefully settled the planet Paradron. Outnumbered and fleeing from the Aerialbots, Cyclonus and Scourge took refuge inside a vortex, which transported them to the pacifistic, energy-rich planet of Paradron, which had been settled by Cybertronian refugees. Naturally, the duo immediately overthrew the planet and summoned Galvatron and the other Decepticons there; the plan was ultimately foiled by the Autobots, but at the cost of Paradron itself, which was destroyed. mehr

Amaranth grain

Grain amaranth is also grown as a food crop in limited amounts in Mexico, where it is used to make a candy called "alegría" (Spanish for happiness) at festival times. Amaranth species that are still used as a grain are "Amaranthus caudatus", "Amaranthus cruentus", and "Amaranthus hypochondriacus". The grain is popped and mixed with honey. In North India, it is called "rājgīrā" (राजगीरा). The popped grain is mixed with melted jaggery in proper proportion to make iron and energy rich “laddus,” a popular food provided at the Mid-day Meal Program in municipal schools. mehr

Lithoautotroph

Lithoautotrophic microbial consortia are responsible for the phenomenon known as acid mine drainage, whereby energy-rich pyrite present in mine tailing heaps and in exposed rock faces is metabolized to form sulfites, which form potentially corrosive sulfuric acid when dissolved in water and exposed to aerial oxygen. Acid mine drainage drastically alters the acidity and chemistry of groundwater and streams, and may endanger plant and animal populations. Activity similar to acid mine drainage, but on a much lower scale, is also found in natural conditions such as the rocky beds of glaciers, in soil and talus, and in the deep subsurface. mehr

List of guinea pig breeds

Few varieties of hairless Guinea pig exist, the most prevalent breeds being the Skinny pig and the Baldwin. They are two separate breeds, with different genetic factors rendering them hairless. Hairless cavies in general need warmer accommodation and more energy-rich food to compensate for the loss of body heat. They are also susceptible to draught, drying of the skin, and skin infections without careful husbandry. mehr

Bonin petrel

The Bonin petrel and the closely related mottled petrel are the only "Pterodroma" petrels with a fish dominated diet. Principal prey items are fish from the family Myctophidae (lantern fish) and Sternoptychidae (hatchetfish). Squid from the family Ommastrephidae are also consumed. All of these prey are midwater residents that use photophores and migrate to the surface during the night to feed; thus it is assumed that Bonin petrels are nocturnal feeders that seize prey at the surface while resting on the sea or in flight. Bonin petrel eyes contain high levels of the pigment rhodopsin which aids nocturnal vision. The Bonin petrel is usually solitary at sea, but is occasionally seen in large multi-species flocks. Like all procellariids the Bonin petrel has a modified area of the gut known as a proventriculus which partly digests prey to create stomach oil, an energy rich oil which is lighter to carry than prey. mehr

Entropy and life

On the other hand, (1) live systems cannot persist in isolation and (2) the second principle of thermodynamics does not require that free energy be transformed into entropy along the shortest path: live organisms absorb energy from sun-light or from energy-rich chemical compounds and finally return part of such energy to the environment as entropy (heat and low free-energy compounds such as water and CO2). mehr

Microbial loop

In general, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is introduced into the ocean environment from bacterial lysis, the leakage or exudation of fixed carbon from phytoplankton (e.g., mucilaginous exopolymer from diatoms), sudden cell senescence, sloppy feeding by zooplankton, the excretion of waste products by aquatic animals, or the breakdown or dissolution of organic particles from terrestrial plants and soils (Van den Meersche "et al." 2004). Bacteria in the microbial loop decompose this particulate detritus to utilize this energy-rich matter for growth. Since more than 95% of organic matter in marine ecosystems consists of polymeric, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g., protein, polysaccharides, lipids), only a small portion of total dissolved organic matter (DOM) is readily utilizable to most marine organisms at higher trophic levels. This means that dissolved organic carbon is not available directly to most marine organisms; marine bacteria introduce this organic carbon into the food web, resulting in additional energy becoming available to higher trophic levels. Recently the term "microbial food web" has been substituted for the term "microbial loop". mehr

Site-specific recombination

Recombination between two DNA sites begins by the recognition and binding of these sites by the recombinase protein. This is followed by synapsis, i.e. bringing the sites together to form the synaptic complex. It is within this synaptic complex that the strand exchange takes place, as the DNA is cleaved and rejoined by controlled transesterification reactions. During strand exchange, the DNA cut at fixed points within the crossover region of the site releases a deoxyribose hydroxyl group, while the recombinase protein forms a transient covalent bond to a DNA backbone phosphate. This phosphodiester bond between the hydroxyl group of the nucleophilic serine or tyrosine residue conserves the energy that was expended in cleaving the DNA. Energy stored in this bond is subsequently used for the rejoining of the DNA to the corresponding deoxyribose hydroxyl group on the other site. The entire process therefore goes through without the need for external energy-rich cofactors such as ATP. mehr

Anabaena circinalis

During periods when combined nitrogen (e.g. ammonia or nitrate) is unavailable, " A. circinalis " form heterocysts, larger, round, nitrogen-fixing cells found every ten to twenty cells or so on the filament. Heterocysts function to convert environmental nitrogen (N2) into compounds such as ammonia or nitrate. "Nitrogenase", an oxygen-sensitive enzyme, is essential to this conversion. For the proper functioning of nitrogenase, the intracellular environment of the heterocyst must be anaerobic, a task achieved by the oxygen-impermeable structure of the heterocyst wall. Although functioning independent of each other, vegetative cells and heterocysts are both essential to the survival of the organism; vegetative cells providing energy-rich sugars to the organism, while heterocysts fix nitrogen for amino acid production and cellular biosynthesis. mehr

MechMania

But it couldn't last; the stream of mega-transports that once moved trillions of tons daily now only moved billions, and then millions, and finally slowed to almost a trickle. Deprived of their revenue stream, the tera-corporations expanded into the energy market. In what later became known as the "Energy Wars", the corporations fought for control of the power transmission stations on the few energy rich worlds with their "Mechs"—giant intelligent war machines almost as insane as their poorly-socialized masters. mehr

Signal Flare (Transformers)

While Omnicons were formerly Autobots and Decepticons, these two sides set aside their differences and left Cybertron with Team Rodimus. The Omnicons eventually began working together to mine energon, the energy-rich mineral needed to power Transformers and their technology. Invaluable to the Transformers because of their unique ability to handle, shape and process raw energon, which is damaging to normal Transformers, the Omnicons created the Cybertron cities as only they can. There are three distinct body types shared among the Omnicon ranks, but unlike the Terrorcons, each Omnicon possesses an individual mind of his own. mehr

African Energy Commission

The commission was set up with the intention of coordinating policy for the energy-rich continent, and was launched after a three-day meeting of AU energy ministers in Algiers, Algeria. mehr

Blåbärssoppa

Blåbärssoppa is traditionally served to the participants at the ski marathon Vasaloppet, as it is rich in energy. Bilberries have traditionally been used to combat mild gastrointestinal ailments, and in Sweden and Finland, blåbärssoppa is often considered suitable food for people with stomach upsets, also because it is energy-rich. mehr

Selfish brain theory

The special position of the brain during inanition (due to fasting or tumor disease) was already confirmed experimentally over 80 years ago: The body mass reduces, but the mass of the brain hardly reduces, if at all (see 3). Recently this axiom of the selfish brain theory was supported by work at the University of Luebeck involving state-of-the-art magnetic resonance procedures, e.g. during metabolic stress. The ATP content in the brain and musculature of test subjects was examined by a magnetic resonance technique while either an energy deficit or surplus was induced in the blood by insulin or glucose injection. In both situations a sufficiently high ATP-concentration was measured in the brain. The measured high-energy-rich substances changed throughout to the benefit of the brain and to the disadvantage of the body cells. The glucose-supply of the brain had priority despite the physical stress that was being endured (see 11). mehr

Coal mining in the United States

Coal mining has been roughly equal in volume (Mt) between 2005-2011 in the US. Coal available for own use as Mt was 91% in 2011 compred to 2005, which may reflect less coal dependency in the energy supply. One should also notice that the specific net calorific value for coal in the US was 0.541 toe/tonne in 2011 and 0.632 toe/tonne in 2004/2005. This means that less energy rich mines are used than earlier. 2011/2005-ratio is 86%. mehr
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